Accès gratuit
Méd. Intensive Réa
Volume 25, Numéro 5, Septembre 2016
Médecine d'urgence-Neuroréanimation
Page(s) 491 - 505
Section Mise Au Point / Update
Publié en ligne 23 juillet 2016
  • Ferenci P, Lockwood A, Mullen K, et al (2002) Hepatic encephalopathy--definition, nomenclature, diagnosis, and quantification: final report of the working party at the 11th World Congresses of Gastroenterology, Vienna, 1998. Hepatology 35:716–21 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Streetz KL, Tacke F, Koch A, et al (2013) [Acute liver failure. Diagnosis and therapy]. Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 108:639–45 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Reuben A, Tillman H, Fontana RJ, et al (2016) Outcomes in Adults With Acute Liver Failure Between 1998 and 2013: An Observational Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 11:724–32 [Google Scholar]
  • Bustamante J, Rimola A, Ventura PJ, et al (1999) Prognostic significance of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol 30:890–5 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Orman ES, Perkins A, Ghabril M, et al (2015) The confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit in patients with cirrhosis. Metab Brain Dis 30:1063–71 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Levesque E, Hoti E, Azoulay D, et al (2012) Prospective evaluation of the prognostic scores for cirrhotic patients admitted to an intensive care unit. J Hepatol 56:95–102 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Joshi D, O’Grady J, Patel A, et al (2014) Cerebral oedema is rare in acute-on-chronic liver failure patients presenting with high-grade hepatic encephalopathy. Liver Int 34:362–6 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Lockwood AH, McDonald JM, Reiman RE, et al (1979) The dynamics of ammonia metabolism in man. Effects of liver disease and hyperammonemia. J Clin Invest 63:449–60 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Drolz A, Jager B, Wewalka M, et al (2013) Clinical impact of arterial ammonia levels in ICU patients with different liver diseases. Intensive Care Med 39:1227–37 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Watanabe A, Higashi T, Shiota T, et al (1983) Alterations in neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier in hepatic failure. Res Exp Med (Berl) 183:11–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Palomero-Gallagher N, Zilles K (2013) Neurotransmitter receptor alterations in hepatic encephalopathy: a review. Arch Biochem Biophys 536:109–21 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Rama Rao KV, Norenberg MD (2014) Glutamine in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy: the trojan horse hypothesis revisited. Neurochem Res 39:593–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Shawcross DL, Davies NA, Williams R, et al (2004) Systemic inflammatory response exacerbates the neuropsychological effects of induced hyperammonemia in cirrhosis. Journal of Hepatology 40:247–54 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Shawcross DL, Wright G, Olde Damink SW, et al (2007) Role of ammonia and inflammation in minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis 22:125–38 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Coltart I, Tranah TH, Shawcross DL (2013) Inflammation and hepatic encephalopathy. Arch Biochem Biophys 536:189–96 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Albillos A, Lario M, Alvarez-Mon M (2014) Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction: distinctive features and clinical relevance. J Hepatol 61:1385–96 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Watanabe A, Shiota T, Okita M, et al (1983) Effect of a branched chain amino acid-enriched nutritional product on the pathophysiology of the liver and nutritional state of patients with liver cirrhosis. Acta Med Okayama 37:321–33 [Google Scholar]
  • Nguyen JH, Yamamoto S, Steers J, et al (2006) Matrix metalloproteinase-9 contributes to brain extravasation and edema in fulminant hepatic failure mice. J Hepatol 44:1105–14 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Weiss N, Junot C, Rudler M, et al (2016) Hepatic versus drug-induced encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients? Liver Int [in press] [Google Scholar]
  • Quinn M, McMillin M, Galindo C, et al (2014) Bile acids permeabilize the blood brain barrier after bile duct ligation in rats via Rac1-dependent mechanisms. Dig Liver Dis 46:527–34 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Prabhakar S, Bhatia R (2003) Management of agitation and convulsions in hepatic encephalopathy. Indian J Gastroenterol 22 Suppl 2:S54–8 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sawhney R, Holland-Fischer P, Rosselli M, et al (2016) Role of ammonia, inflammation and cerebral oxygenation in brain dysfunction of acute on chronic liver failure patients. Liver Transpl. 22:732–42 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mouri S, Tripon S, Rudler M, et al (2015) FOUR score, a reliable score for assessing overt hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients. Neurocrit Care 22:251–7 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Cadranel JF, Lebiez E, Di Martino V, et al (2001) Focal neurological signs in hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients: an underestimated entity? Am J Gastroenterol 96:515–8 [Google Scholar]
  • Vilstrup H, Amodio P, Bajaj J, et al (2014) Hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver disease: 2014 Practice Guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the European Association for the Study of the Liver. Hepatology 60:715–35 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Strauss E, da Costa MF (1998) The importance of bacterial infections as precipating factors of chronic hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis. Hepatogastroenterology 45:900–4 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Conn HO (1969) A rational program for the management of hepatic coma. Gastroenterology 57:715–23 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Weiss N, Mutlu G, Essardy F, et al (2009) [The French version of the FOUR score: A new coma score]. Rev Neurol (Paris) 165:796–802 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Schiff S, Casa M, Di Caro V, et al (2016) A low-cost, user-friendly electroencephalographic recording system for the assessment of hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology 63:1651–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Amodio P, Montagnese S (2015) Clinical neurophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy. J Clin Exp Hepatol 5:S60–8 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Parsons-Smith BG, Summerskill WH, Dawson AM, et al (1957) The electroencephalograph in liver disease. Lancet 273:867–71 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Marchetti P, D’Avanzo C, Orsato R, et al (2011) Electroencephalography in patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 141:1680-9 e1–2 [Google Scholar]
  • Lai CH, Cheng PY, Chen YY (2011) Liver cirrhosis and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage: a 9-year follow-up study. Stroke 42:2615–7 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chavarria L, Cordoba J (2014) Magnetic resonance of the brain in chronic and acute liver failure. Metab Brain Dis 29:937–44 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Alonso J, Cordoba J, Rovira A (2014) Brain magnetic resonance in hepatic encephalopathy. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 35:136–52 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Als-Nielsen B, Gluud LL, Gluud C (2004) Non-absorbable disaccharides for hepatic encephalopathy: systematic review of randomised trials. BMJ 328:1046 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sharma P, Agrawal A, Sharma BC, et al (2011) Prophylaxis of hepatic encephalopathy in acute variceal bleed: a randomized controlled trial of lactulose versus no lactulose. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 26:996–1003 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • American Association for the Study of Liver D, European Association for the Study of the L (2014) Hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver disease: 2014 practice guideline by the European Association for the Study of the Liver and the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. J Hepatol 61:642–59 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Blanc P, Daures JP, Rouillon JM, et al (1992) Lactitol or lactulose in the treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy: results of a meta-analysis. Hepatology 15:222–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Cutler T, Mints G (2015) Lactulose vs Polyethylene Glycol for Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy. JAMA Intern Med 175:867–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Patidar KR, Bajaj JS (2013) Antibiotics for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis 28:307–12 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kimer N, Krag A, Gluud LL (2014) Letter: the effects of rifaximin in hepatic encephalopathy--authors’ reply. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 40:858–9 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Ponziani FR, Gerardi V, Pecere S, et al (2015) Effect of rifaximin on gut microbiota composition in advanced liver disease and its complications. World J Gastroenterol 21:12322–33 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Ponziani FR, Scaldaferri F, Petito V, et al (2016) The Role of Antibiotics in Gut Microbiota Modulation: The Eubiotic Effects of Rifaximin. Dig Dis 34:269–78 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bass NM, Mullen KD, Sanyal A, et al (2010) Rifaximin treatment in hepatic encephalopathy. N Engl J Med 362:1071–81 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sharma BC, Sharma P, Lunia MK, et al (2013) A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing rifaximin plus lactulose with lactulose alone in treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol 108:1458–63 [Google Scholar]
  • Bajaj JS, Barrett AC, Bortey E, et al (2015) Prolonged remission from hepatic encephalopathy with rifaximin: results of a placebo crossover analysis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 41:39–45 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sanyal A, Younossi ZM, Bass NM, et al (2011) Randomised clinical trial: rifaximin improves health-related quality of life in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy - a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 34:853–61 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mullen KD, Sanyal AJ, Bass NM, et al (2014) Rifaximin is safe and well tolerated for long-term maintenance of remission from overt hepatic encephalopathy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 12:1390–7 e2 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bajaj JS, Riggio O (2010) Drug therapy: rifaximin. Hepatology 52:1484–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • De Leo C, Eftimiadi C, Schito GC (1986) Rapid disappearance from the intestinal tract of bacteria resistant to rifaximin. Drugs Exp Clin Res 12:979–81 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Neff GW, Jones M, Jonas M, et al (2013) Lack of Clostridium difficile infection in patients treated with rifaximin for hepatic encephalopathy: a retrospective analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol 47:188–92 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Rockey DC, Vierling JM, Mantry P, et al (2014) Randomized, double-blind, controlled study of glycerol phenylbutyrate in hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology 59:1073–83 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Tapper EB, Jiang ZG, Patwardhan VR (2015) Refining the ammonia hypothesis: a physiology-driven approach to the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Mayo Clin Proc 90:646–58 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kao D, Roach B, Park H, et al (2016) Fecal microbiota transplantation in the management of hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology 63:339–40 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Cordoba J, Lopez-Hellin J, Planas M, et al (2004) Normal protein diet for episodic hepatic encephalopathy: results of a randomized study. J Hepatol 41:38–43 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Lefrant JY, Hurel D, Cano NJ, et al (2014) [Guidelines for nutrition support in critically ill patient]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 33:202–18 [Google Scholar]
  • Merli M, Riggio O (2009) Dietary and nutritional indications in hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis 24:211–21 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Les I, Doval E, Garcia-Martinez R, et al (2011) Effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation in patients with cirrhosis and a previous episode of hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized study. Am J Gastroenterol 106:1081–8 [Google Scholar]
  • Als-Nielsen B, Gluud LL, Gluud C (2004) Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD002798 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Romero-Gomez M (2010) Pharmacotherapy of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother 11:1317–27 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Laleman W, Simon-Talero M, Maleux G, et al (2013) Embolization of large spontaneous portosystemic shunts for refractory hepatic encephalopathy: a multicenter survey on safety and efficacy. Hepatology 57:2448–57 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Jalan R, Kapoor D (2004) Reversal of diuretic-induced hepatic encephalopathy with infusion of albumin but not colloid. Clin Sci (Lond) 106:467–74 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Simon-Talero M, Garcia-Martinez R, Torrens M, et al (2013) Effects of intravenous albumin in patients with cirrhosis and episodic hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized double-blind study. J Hepatol 59:1184–92 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hassanein TI, Tofteng F, Brown RS Jr, et al (2007) Randomized controlled study of extracorporeal albumin dialysis for hepatic encephalopathy in advanced cirrhosis. Hepatology 46:1853–62 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Saliba F, Camus C, Durand F, et al (2013) Albumin dialysis with a noncell artificial liver support device in patients with acute liver failure: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 159:522–31 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Les statistiques affichées correspondent au cumul d'une part des vues des résumés de l'article et d'autre part des vues et téléchargements de l'article plein-texte (PDF, Full-HTML, ePub... selon les formats disponibles) sur la platefome Vision4Press.

Les statistiques sont disponibles avec un délai de 48 à 96 heures et sont mises à jour quotidiennement en semaine.

Le chargement des statistiques peut être long.