Free Access
Méd. Intensive Réa.
Volume 27, Number 5, Septembre 2018
Neuroréanimation et toxicologie
Page(s) 421 - 427
Section Mise au point / Update
Published online 06 June 2018
  • Deitel M, Syed AK, (1973) Intestinal obstruction by an unusual foreign body. Can Mad Assoc J 109: 211–212 [Google Scholar]
  • Traub SJ, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS, (2003) Body packing—the internal concealment of illicit drugs. N Engl J Med 349: 2519–2526 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Annotations, (1940) A new way of smuggling narcotics. Lancet 235: 464 [Google Scholar]
  • Berger FH, Nieboer KH, Goh GS, Pinto A, Scaglione M, (2015) Body packing: a review of general background, clinical and imaging aspects. Radiol Med 120: 118–132 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Cappelletti S, Piacentino D, Sani G, Bottoni E, Fiore PA, Aromatario M, Cialella C, (2016) Systematic review of the toxicological and radiological features of body packing. Int J Legal Med 130: 693–709 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chakrabarty A, Hydros S, Puliyel JM, (2006) Smuggling contraband drugs using paediatric “body packers”. Arch Dis Child 91: 51 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Cordero DR, Medina C, Helfgott A, (2006) Cocaine body packing in pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med 48: 323–325 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gherardi RK, Baud FJ, Leporc P, Marc B, Dupeyron JP, Diamant-Berger O, (1988) Detection of drugs in the urine of body-packers. Lancet 1: 1076–1078 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bulstrode N, Banks F, Shrotria S, (2002) The outcome of drug smuggling by ‘body-packers’ — the British experience. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 84: 35–38 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • van Geloven AA, van Lienden KP, Gouma DJ, (2002) Bodypacking — an increasing problem in The Netherlands: conservative or surgical treatment? Eur J Surg 168: 404–409 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Pidoto RR, Agliata AM, Bertolini R, Mainini A, Rossi G, Giani G, (2002) A new method of packaging cocaine for international traffic and implications for the management of cocaine body packers. J Emerg Med 23: 149–153 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Shahnazi M, Hassanian-Moghaddam H, Gachkar L, Ahmadi N, Zamani N, Bahrami-Motlagh H, Faghihi Langroudi T, Arjmand Shabestari A, Mohammad Alizadeh A, (2015) Comparison of abdominal computed tomography with and without oral contrast in diagnosis of body packers and body stuffers. Clin. Toxicol (Phila) 53: 596–603 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kucukmetin NT, Gucyetmez B, Poyraz T, Yildirim S, Boztas G, Tozun N, (2014) Foreign material in the gastrointestinal tract: cocaine packets. Case Rep Gastroenterol 8: 56–60 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • UNODC, (2013) World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales no E.13.XI.6) [Google Scholar]
  • Khan FY, (2005) The cocaine ‘body-packer’ syndrome: diagnosis and treatment. Indian J Med Sci 59: 457–458 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Cawich SO, Hassranah D, Pooran S, Dan D, Narayansingh V, (2015) Complicated acute appendicitis? An unusual differential. Trop Doct 45: 49–51 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bogusz MJ, Althoff H, Erkens M, Maier RD, Hofmann R, (1995) Internally concealed cocaine: analytical and diagnostic aspects. J Forensic Sci 40: 811–815 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Yegane RA, Bashashati M, Hajinasrollah E, Heidari K, Salehi NA, Ahmadi M, (2009) Surgical approach to body packing. Dis Colon Rectum 52: 97–103 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hergan K, Kofler K, Oser W, (2004) Drug smuggling by body packing: what radiologists should know about it. Eur Radiol 14: 736–742 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Pinto A, Reginelli A, Pinto F, Sica G, Scaglione M, Berger FH, Romano L, Brunese L, (2014) Radiological and practical aspects of body packing. Br J Radiol 87: 20130500 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Niewiarowski S, Gogbashian A, Afaq A, Kantor R, Win Z, (2010) Abdominal X-ray signs of intra-intestinal drug smuggling. J Forensic Leg Med 17: 198–202 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Walter BM, Martignoni M, Säckl J, Felgenhauer N, Eyer F, Tratzl V, Schmid RM, von Delius S, (2012) A curious case of body packing: impaction of cocaine capsules in a colostomy exit. Forensic Toxicol 30:199–201 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Karhunen PJ, Suoranta H, Penttila A, Pitkaranta P, (1991) Pitfalls in the diagnosis of drug smuggler’s abdomen. J Forensic Sci 36: 397–402 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wilgoren J, (1998) Misdiagnosis led to man’s handcuffing, suit claims. New York Times, Accessed 17 April 2015 [Google Scholar]
  • Burillo-Putze G, Becker LT, Rodríguez MG, Torres JS, Nogué S, (2012) Liquid cocaine body packers. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 50: 522–524 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Poletti PA, Canel L, Becker CD, Wolff H, Elger B, Lock E, Sarasin F, Bonfanti MS, Dupuis-Lozeron E, Perneger T, Platon A, (2012) Screening of illegal intracorporeal containers (“body packing”): is abdominal radiography sufficiently accurate? A comparative study with low-dose CT. Radiology 265: 772–779 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sica G, Guida F, Bocchini G, Iaselli F, Iadevito I, Scaglione M, (2015) Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 36: 39–47 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Union E, (1996) Council Directive 96/29/Euratom of 13 May 1996 laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionizing radiation., Access via, [Google Scholar]
  • Bahrami-Motlagh H, Mahboubi-Fooladi Z, Salevatipour B, Hassanian-Moghaddam H, Mirhashemi SH, (2018) Comparision of low dose and standard dose abdominal CT scan in body stuffers. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 56: 348–354 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Guinier D, Hubert N, Chopard JL, (2007) Transport de stupéfiants in corpore : problèmes médicochirurgicaux et médicolégaux. J Chir 144: 481–485 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Ortega-Carnicer J, Gomez-Grande L, Ambros A, (2005) Electrocardiographic changes indicating surgery on cocaine body-packers. Resuscitation 65: 373–374 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sporer KA, Firestone J, (1997) Clinical course of crack cocaine body stuffers. Ann Emerg Med 29: 596–601 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Heymann-Maier L, Trueb L, Schmidt S, Carron PN, Hugli O, Heymann E, Yersin B, (2017) Emergency department management of body packers and body stuffers. Swiss Med Wkly 147: w14499 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mandava N, Chang RS, Wang JH, Bertocchi M, Yrad J, Allamaneni S, Aboian E, Lall MH, Mariano R, Richards N, (2011) Establishment of a definitive protocol for the diagnosis and management of body packers (drug mules). Emerg Med J 28: 98–101 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • de Prost N, Lefebvre A, Questel F, Roche N, Pourriat JL, Huchon G, Rabbat A, (2005) Prognosis of cocaine body-packers. Intensive Care Med 31: 955–958 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Megarbane B, Ekherian JM, Couchard AC, Goldgran-Toledano D, Baud F, (2004) La chirurgie au secours des body-packers. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 23: 495–498 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Koehler SA, Ladham S, Rozin L, Shakir A, Omalu B, Dominick J, Wecht C, (2005) The risk of body-packing: a case of fatal cocaine overdose. Forensic Sci Int 151: 81–84 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Beckley I, Ansari NAA, Khwaja HA, Mohsen Y, (2009) Clinical management of cocaine body packers: the Hillingdon experience. Can J Surg 52: 417–421 [Google Scholar]
  • Das D, Ali B, (1996) Towards evidence based emergency medicine: BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Conservative management of asymptomatic cocaine body packers. Emerg Med J 38: 111–116 [Google Scholar]
  • Aldrighetti L, Paganelli M, Giacomelli M, Villa G, Ferla G, (1996) Conservative management of cocaine-packet ingestion: experience in Milan, the main Italian smuggling center of South America cocaine. Panminerva Med 38; 11–16 [Google Scholar]
  • Glovinski PV, Lauritsen ML, Bay-Nielsen M, Branstrup B, Bisgaard T, (2013) Asymptomatic body packers should be treated conservatively. Dan Med J 60: A4723 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Traub SJ, Su M, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS, (2003) Use of pharmaceutical promotility agents in the treatment of body packers. Am J Emerg Med 21: 511–512 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Visser L, Stricker B, Hoogendoorn M, Vinks A, (1998) Do not give paraffin to packers. Lancet 352: 1352 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Marc B, Baud F, (1999) Paraffin and body-packers. Lancet 353: 238–239 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Veyrie N, Servajean S, Aissat T, Corigliano N, Angelakov C, Bouillot JL, (2008) Value of a systematic operative protocol for cocaine body packers. World J Surg 32: 1432–1437 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hoffman RS, Smilkstein MJ, Goldfrank LR, (1990) Whole bowel irrigation and the cocaine-body packer: a new approach to a common problem. Am J Emerg Med 8: 523–527 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Tomaszewski C, McKinney P, Phillips S, Brent J, Kulig K, (1993) Prevention of toxicity from oral cocaine by activated charcoal in mice. Ann Emerg Med 22: 1804–1806 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Olmedo R, Nelson L, Chu J, Hoffman R, (2001) Is surgical decontamination definitive treatment of “body-packer”? Am J Emerg Med 19: 593–596 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Alipour-Faz A, Shadnia S, Mirhashemi SH, Peyvandi M, Oroei M, Shafagh O, Peyvandi H, Peyvandi AA, (2016) Assessing the Epidemiological Data and Management Methods of Body Packers Admitted to a Referral Center in Iran. Medicine (Baltimore) 95: e3656 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • McCarron MM, Wood JD, (1983) The cocaine “body packer” syndrome. Diagnosis and treatment. JAMA 250: 1417–1420 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Silverberg D, Menes T, Kim U, (2006) Surgery for “body packers” — a 15-year experience. World J Surg 30: 541–546 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Beck NE, Hale E, (1993) Cocaine “body packers” Br J Surg 80: 1513–1516 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gherardi R, Marc B, Alberti X, Baud F, Diamant-Berger O, (1990) A cocaine body-packer with normal abdominal plain radiograms. Value of drug detection in urine and contrast study of the bowel. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 11: 154–157 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Álvarez Llano L, Rey Valcalcel C, Al-Lal YM, Pérez Díaz MD, Stafford A, Turégano Fuentes F, (2014) The role of surgery in the management of “body packers”. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 40: 351–355 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • de Bakker JK, Nanayakkara PW, Geeraedts LM, de Lange ES, Mackintosh MO, Bonjer HJ, (2012) Body packers: a plea for conservative treatment. Langenbecks Arch Surg 397: 125–130 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hantson P, Capron A, Wallemacq P, (2011) Toxicokinetics of cocaine and metabolites in a body-packer becoming symptomatic. J Forensic Leg Med 18: 385–387 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hantson P, Capron A, Maillart JF, (2014) Oesophageal and gastric obstruction in a cocaine body packer. J Forensic Leg Med 27: 62–64 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Heinemann A, Miyaishi S, Iwersen S, Shmoldt A, Püschel K, (1998) Body-packing as cause of unexpected sudden death. Forensic Sci Int 92: 1–10 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Suarez CA, Arango A, Lester JL, (1997) Cocaine-condom ingestion. JAMA 238: 1391–1392 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lancashire MJ, Legg PK, Lowe M, Davidson SM, Ellis BW, (1988) Surgical aspects of international drug smuggling. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 296: 1035–1037 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Utecht MJ, Stone AF, McCarron MM, (1993) Heroin body packers. J Emerg Med 11: 33–40 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Jones OM, Shorey BA, (2002) Body packers: grading of risk as a guide to management and intervention. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 84: 131–132 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wong GCK, Lai KK, Chung CH, (2005) Management of body packers in the emergency department. Hong Kong J Emerg Med 12: 112–118 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • de Beer SA, Spiessens G, Mol W, Fa-Si-Oen PR, (2008) Surgery for body packing in the Caribbean: a retrospective study of 70 patients. World J Surg 32: 281–285 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Schaper A, Hofmann R, Bargain P, Desel H, Ebbecke M, Langer C, (2007) Surgical treatment in cocaine body packers and body pushers. Int J Colorectal Dis 22: 1531–1535 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Arora NP, Berk WA, Aaron CK, Williams KA, (2013) Usefulness of intravenous lipid emulsion for cardiac toxicity from cocaine overdose. Am J Cardiol 111: 445–447 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.